OPTICAL CONTACT METHODS OF MONITORING THE HYDROSPHERE AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN NEW SCIENTIFIC DIRECTION

 S.А. Sholar, M.E. Lee

 Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS, Russian Federation, Sevastopol, Каpitanskaya Str. 2

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2018-4-17-26

UDC 681.3.06; 535.8; 557.583; 578.4(262.5)

Abstract:

     Optical methods are widely used in monitoring systems of various water areas due to their inherent ability to obtain information about the state of the aquatic environment. Data obtained in the course of optical studies are used by hydrologists, hydrobiologists and other specialists whose interests are related to sea optics. The use of optical express methods allows obtaining information on the required characteristics of water, hydrobionts, soluble organic matter, etc., in situ in real time, without sampling and preparing.

     The purpose of this work is to conduct literature search on the problem of using contact optical methods in studying single-celled aquatic organisms, as well as their parasites – aquatic viruses – with the establishment of the possibility of viral lysis influence on certain physical parameters of their habitat.

     The main optical methods of monitoring the state of aquatic environment were considered. In the course of the literature review, it was found that contact optical methods are actively used to study the distribution of phytoplankton biomass, the photosynthetic activity of radiation, and when analyzing the composition of water with contaminants in the form of dissolved organic and suspended matter.

     However, to study the effect of viral lysis on the optical properties of water as the habitat of aquatic viruses (nano sized hydrobionts), contact optical methods, according to the literature, are practically not used. During the literary search, theoretical evidence was confirmed for the possibility of using contact optical methods for studying the hydrosphere viruses and their role in the functioning of biological and ecological systems of hydrosphere. And the first experiments aimed at studing the effect of viral lysis on the transparency of marine water, performed in 2018, simulating the flowering of phytoplankton and the peak of algal viruses abundance found out the role of viral lysis in increasing the transparency of their habitat – marine water. On the basis of the published literature review and taking into account the first practical results with one of the authors participating in the study, it was suggested that the use of contact optical methods in – aquatic (marine) virology – will provide new facts about the participation of viruses in the functioning of biosystems of reservoirs and about their influence on some physical parameters of their habitat.

Keywords: contact optical methods, multi-spectral light beam attenuation meter, sea optics, sea viruses, photosynthetic activity, fluorescence, light beam attenuation coefficient (BAC).

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