About long-period variability of value pH in the deep-sea part of the Black Sea

A.B. Polonsky, E.A. Grebneva

Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, Russian Federation, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28

Email: apolonsky5@mail.ru, lenagrebneva12@gmail.com

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2019-1-63-71

UDC 551.464.6/465.4(262.5)           

Abstract:

   Based on the archive data of the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, large-scale field structure and long-term trends in pH values ​​in the upper 150-meter layer of the deep-water part of the Black Sea are analyzed. Regularly updated data bank IPTS contains 169,646 pH measurements at 29,086 stations from 1923 to 2010. The spatial-temporal distribution of stations is not uniform. The most reliable measurements are given for the northwestern shelf and waters adjacent to the southern coast of Crimea and Bosphorus.

   The amount of data in the database is limited. For further analysis, the work uses data for the period from 1956 to 2010, best assured by observations. Spatial climatic heterogeneity of pH in the surface layer of the open part of the Black Sea is about 0.06 units of pH. In the deep-sea part of the sea, lower pH values are observed in the vicinity of the cyclonic gyres centers, where upwelling of more acidic waters occurs. A long-term increase in the acidity of the water surface layer is observed, the magnitude of which is chiefly due to the increase in carbon dioxide content in the lower troposphere and the absorption of some part of excess of CO2 by seawater. This increase is manifested in a decrease of pH in the waters of the sea surface layer which is about 0,06 units of pH for 50 years which is close to estimates obtained for other World ocean regions. At the same time, in the intermediate water area there is a negative trend in the pH value, which exceeds (in absolute value) the trend on the surface by more than 5 times. The probable reason for the intensive decrease  of pH, in this case, is the long-term intensification of the vertical circulation in the intermediate layer of the Black Sea waters, causing the upwelling of more acidic waters at a speed of about 1 m/year. This can lead to a more intense acidification of the sea surface waters already in the coming 10 years.

Keywords: Hydrogen index pH, Black Sea, deep-sea part, pH trends.

Full text in PDF (RUS)

LIST OF REFERENCES

  1. Simonov A. I., Altman E. N. Gershanovich D. E. (ed.) Hydrometeorology and hydrochemistry of the seas of the USSR. Saint Petersburg: Hydrometeoizdat, Vol. 4: Black sea, vol. 2. Hydrochemical conditions and Oceanological bases of biological productivity formation. 1992. P. 220.
  2. Polonsky A. B. pH variability in the waters of the Black sea in the twentieth century: does the acidity of sea water increase? // Reports of the national Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2012. No. 2. P. 146-149.
  3. Record Greenhouse Gas Levels Impact Atmosphere and Oceans.World Meteorological Organization (09.09.2014).
  4. Jacobson M.Z. Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry // Journal of Geophysical Research. 2005. V. 110. D07302, doi:10.1029/2004JD005220
  5. IPCC Assessment Report, Working Group I Report «The Physical Science Basis». 2007. P. 514–515.
  6. Solomon S., Plattner G-K., Knutti R., et al. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions // PNAS. 2009. P. 1704–1709.
  7. Dixon D. Marine biology// In the world of science. no. (8, 9). P. 92-97.
  8. Porteus CS., Hubbard PC., et al.Near-future CO2 levels impair the olfactory system of a marine fish // Nature Climate Change. 2018. P. 737–743.
  9. Gattuso J.-P., Hansson L. Ocean acidification: background and history // Ocean Acidification. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2011. P. 1–20.
  10. Andersson A. J., Mackenzie F.T., Bates, N.R. Life on the margin: implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers // Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2008. V. 373. P. 265–273.
  11. Ries J.B. Skeletal mineralogy in a high-CO2 world // Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 2011. V. 403. P. 54–64.
  12. Lasserre E.P., Martin J.-M. Biogeochemical Processes at the Land-Sea Boundary / Elsevier Science. 1986. 214 p.
  13. Frankignoulle M., Borges A. European continental shelf as significant sink for atmospherically carbon dioxide // Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 2001. V. 15. P. 569–576.
  14. GIS Of the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems / V. V. Melnikov, A. B. Polonsky, A. A. Kotolupova [et al.] / / Monitoring systems of environment. Sevastopol: INTS. 2016. No. 4 (24). Pp. 49-55.
  15. Ryabinin A. I., Shibaeva S. A. Instrumental methods of analysis in ecology: a textbook. Sevastopol: Sevastopol Institute of nuclear energy and industry, 2002. P. 168.
  16. Polonsky A. B., Grebneva E. A. Climatic distribution of pH in the deep-water part of the Black Sea // Monitoring systems of environment. Sevastopol: INTS. 2017. No. 10 (30). P. 88-95.
  17. Dobrzhanskaya M. A. Main features of the hydrochemical regime of the Black Sea // The works of the SBS, WHETHER of the USSR. 1960. Vol. 13. P. 325-378.
  18. Novikova A.M., Kotolupova A. A. On the experience of using the Kriging method in SURFER QGIS programs for marine Climate research // Monitoring systems of environment. Sevastopol: INTS. 2016. Issue 6 (26). Pp. 59-67.
  19. Kobzar A. I. Applied mathematical statistics, Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2006, P. 816.
  20. Bezborodov A. A., Novoselov A. A. New data on oxygen distribution at the boundary of aerobic waters in the Black Sea. Revision of established ideas. Sevastopol: MGI ANU. DEP. VINITI. 1989. no. 6773-In 89. P. 18.
  21. Basin circulation and mesoscale dynamics of the Black Sea under wind influence / A. G. Zatsepin, V. V. Kremenetsky, S. V. Stanichny [et al.] / / Modern problems of ocean and atmosphere dynamics. 2010. P. 347-368.
  22. Semenov S. M., Rankova E. Ya.. Features of long-term changes and seasonal variability of modern background concentrations of CO2, CH4 and N2O At global monitoring stations // Fundamental and applied climatology. 2018. Vol. 4. P. 71-87.
  23. Polonsky A. B., Shokurova I. G. Long-term variability of temperature and salinity in the Black Sea and its causes // Reports of the national Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2013. No. 1. P. 105-110.

If you have found a spelling error, please, notify us by selecting that text and pressing Ctrl+Enter.

Translate »

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: