T.N. Klimova1, V.V. Melnikov2, A.N. Serebrennikov2, P.S.Podrezova2, M.S. Ryzhilov1
1 The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research of RAS, RF, Sevastopol, Nakhimov Av., 2
2 Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28
The biodiversity and spatial distribution of ichthyoplankton off the Crimean peninsula in July-August 2017 are studied. Eggs and larvae of 31 fish species were identified in the Black Sea. Mean number was 101,1 ind./m2 for eggs and 15,7 ind./m2 for larvae. Average temperature of the Sea surface (23,6оС) was favorable for spawning of thermophilic fish species. Species diversity depended mostly on sampling region.
Sufficiently long (more than a week) cyclonic eddies promoted upwelling of abyssal waters, enriched with biogenous matter, that contributed to increasing of zooplankton abundance and attracting of pelagophilic fish for spawning and nursery. Maximum values of ichthyoplankton abundance were registered in the zones of coastal cyclones gyres. The average number of eggs on the shelf of the Crimean peninsula was 117,9 ind. /m2, and larvae 18,1 ind./m2. Due to the significant number of species and lack of well defined dominance, high indices of species diversity were recorded here, comparable with those in the coastal waters of the sea. The number of species in the ichthyoplankton on the shelf of the Crimean peninsula was comparable to that in July 1989, when the biomass of predatory ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi did not yet reached the maximum values characteristic for the 1990s. The shape of the dominance-diversity curves of ichthyoplankton in July 1989 and 2017 is typical for communities with moderate “predation”.
Keywords: icthyoplankton, fish eggs and larvae, species diversity, spatial distribution, hydrological regime, the Black Sea.
LIST OF REFERENCES
- Kideys A.E. Fall and Rise of the Black Sea Ecosystem / Washington. 2002. Vol. 297. P. 1482–1484.
- A new invader in the Black sea – the crested Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassis) / M. E. Vinogradov, E. A. Shushkina, E. I. Musaeva [et al.] // Oceanology. 1989. Vol. 2. P. 293-299.
- Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities / V. Kovalev, M.G. Mazzocchi, I. Siokou–Frangou [et al.] // Medit. Mar. Sci. Vol. 2. 2001. P. 69–77.
- Populationdevelopment of the invader ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi , in the Black Sea and in other seas of the Mediterranean basin / A. Shiganova, E.A. Studenikina, Z.A. Mirzoyan [et al.] // Marine Biology. Vol. 139 (3). P. 431–445.
- Fluctuations of Pelagic Species of the Open Black Sea During 1980 – 1995 and Possible Teleconnections / Niermann, A.E. Kideys, A.V. Kovalev // Environmental Degradation of the Black Sea: Challenges and Remedies. NATO Science Series (2. Environmental Security). Springer, Dordrecht. 1999. Vol. 56. P. 147–173.
- Oguz, T., Deshpande A.G., Malanotte-Rizzoli P. On the role of mesoscale processes controlling biological variability in the Black Sea: Inferrences from SeaWIFS-derived surface chlorophyll field // Continental Shelf Research. 2002. 22 (10). P. 1477–1492.
- Oguz T., Dippner J.W., Kaymaz Z. Climatic regulation of the Black Sea hydro-meteorological and ecological properties at interannual-to-decadal time scales // J. Mar. Syst. 2006. P. 235–
- Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts / G.M. Daskalov, A.N. Grishin, S. Rodionov [et al.] // Proceeding of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). 2007. Vol. 104 (25). P. 10518–10523.
- Shannon C.E., Weave W. The Mathematical Theory of Communication / Urbana, University of Illinois Press. 1949. 117 p.
- Simpson E.H. Measurement of diversity. Nature. 1949. Iss.163. 688 p.
- Margalef R. Information theory in biology // Soc. Gen. Syst. Res. 1958. Vol. 3. P. 36–71.
- Pielou E.C. Species-deversity and pattern-diversity in the study of ecological succession // Journal Theoretical Biology. 1966. Vol. 10. P. 70–83.
- Odum Yu. Ecology, Vol. 2. M.: Mir, 1986. P. 373.
- Dekhnik T. V. Ichthyoplankton of the Black sea. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. P. 234.
- Klimova T. N. Ichthyoplankton of the Black sea as an indicator of the ecological state of shelf waters in Ukraine: autoref. Diss. … Cand. Biol. Sciences. M.: “the 11th FORMAT”, 2005. P. 25.
- Reproduction and ecology of mass fish of the Black sea at the early stages of ontogenesis / T. V. Dekhnik, L. A. Duka, E. M. Kalinina [et al.]. Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1970. P. 211.
- Klimova T. N., Podrezova P.C. Species diversity of ichthyoplankton in areas of the coastal water area of Sevastopol with varying degrees of anthropogenic load // V mezhdunar. scientific Conf. Water bioresources, aquaculture and ecology of reservoirs (Kaliningrad, may 23-24, 2017). Kaliningrad: publishing house of FGBOU VO. P. 183-187.
- Tsikhon-Lukanina E. A., Reznichenko O. G., Lukasheva T. A. Nutrition of the Mnemiopsis combworm // fisheries. No. 4. P. 46-47.
- Gucu A.C. Can Overfishing be Responsible for the Successful Establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea? // Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 2002. 54 (3) P. 439–451.
- Adaptive strategy of the invader Mnemiopsis leidyi and its predators Beroe in Eurasian seas / T.A. Shiganova, J. Molinero, U. Sommer [et al.] // Report of the Joint CIESM/ICES Workshop of Mnemiopsis Science. (18–20 September 2014). Corunna, Spain. P. 4–11.
- Anninsky B. E., Finenko G. A., Datsyk N. A. The role of yellow-bodied predators in the trophodynamics of plankton communities in the coastal regions of the Black sea // Marine biological research: achievements and prospects: collection of materials vseros. scientific-practical Conf. with Intern. participation dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Sevastopol biological station (Sevastopol, September 19-24, 2016). Sevastopol: EKOSI-Hydrophysics. 2016 . Vol. 2. P. 221-224