A.N. Grekov, N.A. Grekov, E.N. Sychov
Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28
The article discusses methods of measuring the speed of sound, scattering and attenuation in a liquid, on the basis of which modern acoustic measuring instruments operating in situ are built. It is noted that in real conditions, any acoustic measurement schemes are not ideal and, depending on the specific structure, can give different results. In acoustic measurements, it is not always possible to unambiguously draw a line between absorption and scattering; sometimes the local case of acoustic attenuation can be interpreted as the limiting case of scattering. Also, the difficulty in determining the acoustic scattering coefficient in liquids is associated with the variety of the liquids themselves, the shape and composition of the scatterers; in this regard, at present, a verification scheme with standards for determining acoustic scattering has not been created.
It is shown in the work that the studied liquids do not have reliable reference scatterers, and, therefore, estimates must be made from statistical ensembles of scatterers, which limits the accuracy and spatial resolution of the estimates obtained.
The technical and metrological characteristics of the measuring channels of modern acoustic instruments of Western and Russian production are presented, including those developed by the authors of this article. Sound speed and back acoustic scattering meters, as well as prototypes of multifunctional acoustic meters are analyzed. Recommendations are given on the use of GOST in acoustic measurements and it is stated that the metrological characteristics of newly created acoustic measuring instruments operating in situ are at the level of State primary standards.
Keywords: metrological support, calibration, speed of sound, sound scattering, attenuation and absorption of sound, measurement method, measuring channels, profilographs, accuracy, uncertainty, standards.
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