Branch of Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sochi, Kurortny Av., 99/18
The paper provides a qualitative and quantitative assessment of springtails communities in the prevailing forest ecosystems of the humid subtropical zone of the Sochi Black Sea region, in the absence of a pronounced anthropogenic impact. The studies were carried out in 6 types of foothill forest ecosystems at 13 stationary sites with a southwestern exposure in the basins of 11 rivers, at a distance from the urbanized territory from 350 to 1200 meters. Springtails complexes were studied in the period 2001-2019, with a time step of 3 years, on permanent and temporary trial plots. Soil samples were taken in the surface layer with 5×5×5 cm metal frame in 5-fold repetition on 3 registration areas corresponding to the zones of the model tree: near the trunk, in the middle and at the border of the crown projection. Collection of springtails was carried out according to standard methods.
For 7 field seasons, the long-term average density of springtails, species diversity, life forms, the degree of dominance and evenness in communities are given. There is a certain similarity in species composition, but significant variation in the relative abundance of specific species, which effects dominant composition and structural evenness, characterizing the stationarity value of conditions in biotopes in long-term dynamics, as well as the boundaries of community stability. The assessment of the evenness of the communities confirmed and supplemented the results on structural variation. According to the value of the ratio of evenness and species diversity, three groups of communities were identified: with the dynamics of a positive relationship, with the dynamics of a negative relationship, and with a linear inverse relationship.
Based on the analysis of the evenness of communities and the relationship with species richness, an assessment of the current state of stability of the analyzed ecosystems and their prospective state are given.
Keywords: forest ecosystems, springtails, diversity, abundance, communities, structure, evenness.
To quote: Scherbina, V.G. “Analysis of the Parameters of Springtail Communities in the Foothill Forest Ecosystems of the Sochi Black Sea Region.” Monitoring Systems of Environment no. 4 (December 24, 2020): 65–74. doi:10.33075/2220-5861-2020-4-65-74.
LIST OF REFERENCES
- Leonov V.D., Rakhleeva A.A. Composition and distribution of microarthropod communities in the landscape-ecological profile of the altitudinal zonation of the Vudyavrchorr mountain (Murmansk region, Khibiny mountains) // News PSPU. Natural Sciences. 2011. № 25. P. 376–382.
- Byzov B.A. Zoomicrobial interactions in soil. M.: GEOS, 2005. 213 p.
- Gilyarov M.S. Zoological method for soil diagnostics. M.: The science, 1965. 278 p.
- Stebaeva S.K. Ecology of springtails (Collembola) of Southeast Altai // Ecology Issues. Ecology and structure of the population of soil-living animals in Altai. Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk State University. 1973. P. 24–138.
- Dobrovolsky G.V., Nikitin E.D. Ecology of soils. Teaching about the ecological functions of soils. M.: Publishing house Mosk. University, 2006. 364 p.
- Shcherbina V.G. Recreational indication of subtropical beech biogeocenoses. 2nd ed., add. and revised. Krivoy Rog: Mineral, 2005. 352 p.
- Pchelkin A.V., Bogolyubov A.S. Methods of lichen indication of environmental pollution: a methodological guide. M: Ecosystem, 1997. 25 p.
- Shcherbina V.G. The use of lichen indication in assessing the transformation of recreational ecosystems // Problems of nature management and the ecological situation in European Russia and adjacent territories: VIII Intern. scientific. conf. (Belgorod, October 22-25, 2019) / ed. M.A. Polshina. Belgorod: Publishing House “Belgorod” NRU “BelGU”, 2019. P. 272–275.
- Rokitsky P.F. Biological statistics. Minsk: Higher school, 1964. 328 p.
- Keys to collembolans of the fauna of Russia and neighboring countries. Family Hypogastruridae / A.B. Babenko, M.B. Potapov, S.K. Stebaev [and others]. M.: The science, 1994. 336 p.
- Bretfeld G. Synopses on Palearctic Collembola. Symphypleona // Treatises and reports from the Natural History Museum Gorlitz. 1999. Vol. 71. № 1. 318 p.
- Fjelberg A. Collembola of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Part I: Poduromorpha // Scandinavian entomological fauna. Boston: Cologne, 1998.Vol. 35, 184 p.
- Potapov M. Summaries of Palearctic collembolans. Isotomidae // Treatises and reports of the Gorlitz Museum of Natural History. 2001. Vol. 73. № 2. 603 p.
- Pomorski R.J. Onychiurinae of Poland (Collembola: Onychiuridae) // Genus (International Journal of Invertebrate Taxonomy (Supplement)). Poland, Wroclaw, 1998. 201 p.
- Dunger W., Schlitt B. Synopses on Palearctic Collembola. Tullbergiidae // Soil organisms / Senckenberg; Museum of Natural History Gorlitz. Germany, 2011. Vol. 83 (1). 168 p.
- Stebaeva, S.K. Springtails (Collembola) life forms // Zoological journal. 1970. Vol. 49. 10. P. 1437-1454.
- Whittaker R. Communities and ecosystems. M.: Progress, 1980. 327 p.
- Megarran E. Ecological diversity and its measurement. M.: World, 1992. 181 p.
- Pielou E.C. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections // Journal of Theoretical Biology. 1966. Vol. 13. P. 131–144.
- Shveenkova Yu. B. Local Collembolan diversity (Hexapods, Collembolas) in the old-growth landscapes of the Middle Volga forest-steppe // Russian Journal of Ecosystem Ecology. 2018. Vol. 3 (2). P. 1–10.
- Thibault J.M., Christian E. Essay on the synthesis of people associated with houseplants, marine life and continents // Bulletin of entomology. Poland. 1995. Vol. 64, pp. 207–216.
- Dobrolyubova T.V. Peculiarities of the Collembola population (Арterygota; Collembola) of mountain pine forests located at different altitudes above sea level // Ecology. 1995. № 2. P. 161–163.
- Bengtsson J., Fagerstram T., Rydin H. Competition, and coexistence in plant communities // TREE. 1994. Vol. 9. № 7. P. 246–250.
- Wilsey B., Stirling G. Species richness and evenness respond in a different manner to propagule density in developing prairie microcosm communities // Plant. Ecology. 2007. Vol. 190. P. 259–273.
- Stirling G., Wilsey B. Empirical relationships between species richness, evenness, and proportional diversity // The American Naturalist. 2001. Vol. 158. P. 286–300.
- Help C.H.R., Herman P.M.J., Soetaert K. Indices of diversity and evenness // Oceanic. 1998. Vol. 24. № 4. P. 61–87.
- Vasilevich V.I. Species diversity of wet meadows in European Russia // Botanical Journal. 2015. Vol. 100. № 4. P. 372–381.
- Lamb E.G., Cahill J.F. When competition does not matter: grassland diversity and community composition // The American Naturalist. 2008. Vol. 171. P. 777–787.
- Species evenness and productivity in experimental plant communities / P.H. Mulder, E. Bazeley-White, P.G. Dimitrakopoulos [et al.] // Oikos. 2004. Vol. 107. P. 50–63.
- Sasaki T., Lauenroth W.K. Dominant species, rather than diversity, regulates temporal stability of plant communities // Ecology. 2011. Vol. 166. № 3. P. 761–768.
- Bell G. The distribution of abundance in neutral communities // The American Naturalist. 2000. Vol. 155. № 5. P. 606–617.
- Rabotnov T.A. Phytocenology. M.: MSU Publishing House, 1983. 296 p.
- Mirkin B.M., Naumova L.G. The current state of the basic concepts of vegetation science. Ufa: Academy of Sciences RB, “Gilem”. 2012. 488 p.
- Magguran A. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988. 181 р.
- Huston M.A. General hypothesis of species diversity // The American Naturalist. 1979. Vol. 113. № 1. P. 81–101.
- Vasilevich V.I. Dominants in the vegetation cover // Botanical Journal. 1991. Vol. 76. № 12. P. 1674-1681.
- Yodzis P. Competition for space and the structure of ecological communities // Lecture Notes in Biomathematics. 1978. Vol. 25. P. 1–191.
- Onipchenko V.G. Functional phytocoenology: plant synecology. M.: KRASSAND, 2013. 640 p.
- Grime J.P. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory // American Naturalist. 1977. Vol. 111. № 982. P. 1169–1194.
- Grime J.P. Plant strategies, vegetation processes, and ecosystem properties. 2-nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 2001. 417 p.
- Grace J.B. A clarification of the debate between Grime and Tilman // Functional Ecology. 1991. Vol. 5. P. 583–587.
- Olff H., Bakker J.P. Do intrinsically dominant and subordinate species exist? A test statistic for field data // Applied Vegetation Science. 1998. Vol. 1. P. 15–20.
- Koval I.P., Bityukov N.A. Ecological bases of forest use in mountain watersheds. Krasnodar: Kuban textbook, 2001, 408 p.
- Shiryaeva N.V., Garshina T.D. Harmful arthropods and parasitic mushroom flora of woody plants of the Sochi National Park (reference book). Sochi, 2000. 40 p.
- Bormann H.F. Likens G.E. Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, 1979. 253 р.
- Gninenko Yu.I., Shiryaeva N.V., Shchurov V.I. Boxwood moth – a new invasive organism in the forests of the Russian Caucasus // Plant quarantine: science and practice. 2014. № 1 (7). P. 32–36.
- Kolganikhina G.B., Dvoretskaya E.V., Tuniev B.S. Drying of boxwood in the Sochi National Park // Mountain ecosystems and their components: IV Intern. conf. Sukhumi, 2012. P. 16–17.
- Kolganikhina G.B. Mass drying of boxwood in the Sochi National Park and the role of pathogenic fungi in this process // Forest Messenger. 2013. № 6. P. 117–124.
- Soltani G.A. On the environmental function of the Buxus colchica // Flora and nature reserve in the Caucasus: history and current state of knowledge: Intern. conf., dedicated. The 130 th anniversary of the Perkala dendrological park (Perkala arboretum). (Pyatigorsk, May 22-25, 2019). 2019. P. 92–94.
- Litvinskaya S.A. Historical ecology (regional sketch): textbook. allowance. Krasnodar: KSU Publishing House, 1997. 214 p.