Comparison of ocean datasets by their ability to adequately reproduce winter anomalies in the characteristics of the upper layer ot the north–eastern part of the North Atlantic

A.B. Polonsky, P.A. Sukhonos

 Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28


DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2021-1-137-146

UDC 551.465.7(261.1)


   This article analyzes the reproducibility of the reemergence of temperature and upper mixed layer (UML) depth anomalies in the northeastern North Atlantic during severe weather conditions observed in the Atlantic-European region in the winter of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The data of re-analyzes ORA-S3, GFDL, GODAS, GLORYS2v4 and objective analyzes Ishii, EN4.1.1 are used.

   It is confirmed that the formation of the negative temperature anomaly in UML in winter 2010/2011 is largely due to the reemergence of the ocean temperature anomaly that occurred in the winter of 2009/2010.

   Interannual UML depth anomalies in the northeastern North Atlantic from the ORA-S3 and GODAS reanalysis datasets from March 2009 to November 2011 are in satisfactory agreement. The best description of the evolution of temperature anomalies in the 10–550 m layer in 2010, in accordance with the hypothesis of the reemergence of the ocean temperature anomaly, was obtained for the UML depth from the indicated data sets.

   An assessment of the statistical features of the case of the reemergence of anomalies in the UML characteristics at a significant level showed the occurrence of the UML depth anomaly in the winter of 2010/2011, formed in the last autumn-winter period. Moreover, such specific conditions could not  have formed in the early 2000s.

Keywords: reemergence of anomalies in the winter, upper mixed layer, North Atlantic.

To quote:

Full text in PDF(RUS)


  1. Namias J., Born R.M. Temporal coherence in North Pacific sea-surface temperature patterns. J. Geophys. Res. 1970. Vol. 75. No 30. pp. 5952–5955.
  2. Alexander M.A., Deser C. A mechanism for the recurrence of winter-time midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1995. Vol. 25. No 1. pp. 122–137.
  3. Byju P., Dommenget D., Alexander M.A. Widespread reemergence of sea surface temperature anomalies in the global oceans, including tropical regions forced by reemerging winds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2018. Vol. 45. No 15. pp. 7683–7691. DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079137
  4. Czaja A., Frankignoul C. Ob-served impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate. 2002. Vol. 15. No 6. pp. 606–623. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0606:OIOASA>2.0.CO;2
  5. Ding R., Li J. Winter persistence barrier of sea surface temperature in the northern tropical Atlantic associated with ENSO. J. Climate. 2011. Vol. 24. No 9. pp. 2285–2299. DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3784.1
  6. Cassou C., Deser C., Alexander M.A. Investigating the impact of reemerging sea surface temperature anomalies on the winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. J. Climate. 2007. Vol. 20. No 14. pp. 3510–3526. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4202.1
  7. Taws S.L., Marsh R., Wells N.C. et al. Re-emerging ocean temperature anomalies in late-2010 associated with a repeat negative NAO. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011. Vol. 38. pp. L20601. DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048978
  8. Nesterov E.S. Ob jekstremal’nyh zimah v Evrope v 2009–2012 godah. Trudy GMC RF. 2017. No 364. pp. 65–80.
  9. Osborn T.J. Winter 2009/2010 temperatures and a record breaking North Atlantic Oscillation index. Weather. 2011. Vol. 66. No 1. pp. 19–21. DOI: 10.1002/wea.660
  10. Maidens A., Arribas A., Scaife A.A. et al. The influence of surface forcings on prediction of the North Atlantic Oscillation regime of winter 2010/11. Mon. Wea. Rev. 2013. Vol. 141. No 11. pp. 3801–3813. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00033.1
  11. Buchan J., Hirschi J.J.M., Blaker A.T. et al. North Atlantic SST anomalies and the cold North European weather events of winter 2009/10 and December 2010. Mon. Wea. Rev. 2014. Vol. 142 No 2. pp. 922–932. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00104.1
  12. Jung T., Vitart F., Ferranti L. et al. Origin and predictability of the extreme negative NAO winter of 2009/10. Geophys. Res. Let. 2011. Vol. 38. No 7. DOI: 10.1029/2011GL046786
  13. Balmaseda M.A., Vidard A., Anderson D.L.T. The ECMWF Ocean Analysis System: ORA-S3. Mon. Wea. Rev. 2008. Vol. 136. No 8. pp. 3018–3034. DOI: 10.1175/ 2008MWR2433.1
  14. Chang Y.-S., Zhang S., Rosati A. et al. An assessment of oceanic variabil-ity for 1960–2010 from the GFDL en-semble coupled data assimilation. Clim. Dyn. 2013. Vol. 40. No 3–4. pp. 775–803. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2
  15. Behringer D.W., Xue Y. Evaluation of the global ocean data assimilation system at NCEP: The Pacific Ocean. Proc. Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface. 2004.
  16. Garric G., Parent L., Greiner E. et al. Performance and quality assess-ment of the global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis GLORYS2V4. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. 2017. Vol. 19. 18776 p.
  17. Ishii M., Kimoto M., Kachi M. Historical ocean subsurface temperature analysis with error estimates. Mon. Wea. Rev. 2003. Vol. 131. No 1. pp. 51–73. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<0051:HOSTAW>2.0.CO;2
  18. Good S.A., Martin M.J., Rayner N.A. EN4: quality controlled ocean temperature and salinity profiles and monthly objective analyses with uncertainty estimates. J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans. 2013. Vol. 118. No 12. pp. 6704–6716. DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009067
  19. Gouretski V., Reseghetti F. On depth and temperature biases in bathythermograph data: development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database. Deep-Sea Res. Part I: Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 2010. Vol. 57. No 6. pp. 812–833. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.011
  20. Lorbacher K., Dommenget D., Niiler P.P. et al. Ocean mixed layer depth: A subsurface proxy of ocean-atmosphere variability. J. Geophys. Res. 2006. V. 111. P. C07010. DOI: 10.1029/2003JC002157

If you have found a spelling error, please, notify us by selecting that text and pressing Ctrl+Enter.

Translate »

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: