Е.А. Rybak1,2, О.О. Rybak1,2,3
1Branch of Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, 99/18 Kurortny Avenue, Sochi, RF
2FRC SSC RAS, 2/28 Yana Fabritsiusa Str., Sochi, RF
3Water Problems Institute of RAS, 3 Gubkina Str., Moscow, RF
The key task of the societal development is to ensure effective management of water resources. As a consequence of aggravation of water problems in the world, the issues of sustainable and guaranteed access to water are considered as one of the components of ensuring food security, conservation and restoration recovery of natural resources, which are the basis of life support for the population.
To date, the regulation of water resources in the North Caucasus experiences difficulties resulting from fragmented water use, unequal access to water, and contradictory legislation in the field of water use regulation. These problems are compounded by two factors: climate change and demographic situation.
The main problem of water consumption in Russia is the irrational and ineffective use of water resources and, as a result, high specific water consumption. In the North Caucasus, water consumption is currently one of the highest in Russia. The characteristics of the impact on water resources are directly related to the use of water, the main elements of which are the water withdrawal from natural sources, the use of water and the discharge of wastewater.
Based on open statistical sources, we analyzed the current situation in the use of water resources in the North Caucasus. The North Caucasus is characterized by problems similar to those of many regions of the country, in particular, large losses during transportation due to the emergency state of water supply networks and treatment facilities.
Water supply problems in the North Caucasus are expected to worsen in the future. If urgent measures are not taken, the complex of problems will only accumulate. To overcome their negative consequences, it is necessary to revise the water use strategy and change the water consumption structure.
Keywords: North Caucasus, water resources, water consumption, water disposal, water loss, rational use of water resources.
To quote: Rybak, Е.А., and О.О. Rybak. “Analysis of Regional Features of Water Use Structure in the North Caucasus. Part 1. Water Availability and Water Consumption.” Monitoring Systems of Environment no. 2 (June 24, 2021): 96–105. doi:10.33075/2220-5861-2021-2-96-105.
- Danilov-Daniliyn V.I. Vodnyye resursy mira i perspektivy vodokhozyaystvennogo kompleksa Rossii (Water resourses of the world and perspectives of water management complex of Russia). Moscow, OOO “Tipografiya LEVKO”. Institute of sustainable development. Center of ecological policy of Russia, 2009, 88 p.
- Demin A.P. Izmeneniye vodoyemkosti ekonomiki Rossii (Changes in water intensity of the economy of Russia). Vodnyye resursy, 2010, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 739-751.
- Motovilov Yu.G. and Gelfan A.N. Modeli formirovaniya stoka v zadachakh gidrologii rechnykh basseynov (Models of runoff formation in problems of hydrology of river basins) Moscow, Water Problems Institute of RAS, 2018, 296 p.
- Weingartner R., Gunya A.N. Vliya-niye izmeneniy klimata na stok i vod-noye khozyaystvo gornykh regionov: opyt i uroki Alp dlya Kavkaza (An influence of climate change on run off and water economy: experience and lessons for the Alps and the Caucasus.) Ustoychivoye razvitiye gornykh territoriy, 2017, Vol.9, No 1, pp. 54-61.
- Nosenko G.A., Khromova T.E., Rototayeva O.V. and Shahgedanova M.V. Reaktsiya lednikov Tsentralnogo Kavkaza v 2001–2010 gg. na izmeneniya temperatury i kolichestva osadkov (The response of the glaciers of the Central Caucasus in 2001–2010 on changes in temperature and precipitation) Led i Sneg, 2013, No. 1 (121), pp. 26–33.
- Tarasova T.T. Demograficheskaya dinamika predgornykh rayonov Tsentralnogo i Zapadnogo Kavkaza (2007–2017 gg.) (Demographic dynamics of the piedmont regions of the Central and Western Caucasus (2007–2017)) Ekonomika. Informatika, 2019, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 199-205. DOI:10.23885/2500-395X-2019-1-4-199-206.
- Fridman A.A. Modeli ekonomicheskogo upravleniya vodnymi resursami (Models of economic management of water resources) Moscow, Izdatelskiy dom Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki, 2012, 47 p.
- Falkner M., Lundqvist J. and Widstrad C. Macroscale Water Scarcity Requires Microscale Aproaches: Aspects of Vulnerability Semi-arid Development. Nature Resources Forum, 1989, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 258-267.
- Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii i ispolzovanii vodnykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2012 godu” (“State report «On the state and disposal of water resources in Russian Federation in 2012”). Moscow, NIA-Priroda, 2013, 370 p.
- Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii i ispolzovanii vodnykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2015 godu” (State report “On the state and disposal of water resources in Russian Federation in 2015”) Available at: https://water-rf.ru/water/gosdoc/353.html (01.11.2020).
- Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii i ispolzovanii vodnykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2017 godu” (“State report «On the state and disposal of water resources in Russian Federation in 2017”) Moscow, NIA-Priroda, 2018, 296 p.
- Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii i ispolzovanii vodnykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2019 godu” (State report “On the state and disposal of water resources in Russian Federation in 2019”). Moscow: NIA-Priroda, 2020, 1846 p.
- Okhrana okruzhayushchey sredy v Rossii. 2018. (Environmental protection in Russia. 2018). Moscow: Statistical collection. of the Federal Service of state statistics, 2018, pp. 65-81.
- Sotsialno-ekonomicheskoye polozheniye Severo-Kavkazskogo federalnogo okruga v 2017 godu (Socio-economic situation of the North Caucasus Federal District in 2017) Moscow, Statistical collection of the Federal Service of state statistics, 2018.
- Strategiya sotsialno-ekonomi-cheskogo razvitiya Yuzhnogo federalnogo okruga na period do 2020 goda II. Kharakteristika Yuzhnogo federalnogo okruga. konkurentnyye preimushchestva. vyzovy i ugrozy 1. Obshchaya kharakteristika i sovremennyye tendentsii sotsialno-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Yuzhnogo federalnogo okruga (The strategy of socio-economic development of the Southern Federal District for the period up to 2020 II. Characteristics of the Southern Federal District, Competitive Advantages, Challenges and Threats 1. General characteristics and current trends in the socio-economic development of the Southern Federal District). Available at: https://sudact.ru/law/rasporiazhenie-pravitelstva-rf-ot-05092011-n-1538-r/strategiia-sotsialno-ekonomicheskogo-razvitiia-iuzhnogo-federalnogo (12.01.2019)
- Ushvitskiy L.I., Gurianov V.M., Kunitsyna N.N. et al. Severo-Kavkazskiy federalnyy okrug: sostoyaniye i strate-gicheskiye oriyentiry razvitiya (North Caucasus Federal District: state and strategic development guidelines). Gosudarstvennoye i munitsipalnoye upravleniye, 2017, No. 3, pp. 30-42
- Ivankova T.V. Vodoobespechennost i problemy podgotovki inzhenerov gidrotekhnikov dlya yuga Rossii (Water supply and problems of training hydraulic engineers for the south of Russia). Evraziyskiy Soyuz Uchenykh (ESU), 2015, No. 7(16), pp. 120-122
- Panov V.D., Lurye P.M. and Ilichev Yu.G. Costoyaniye sovremennogo ole-deneniya severnogo sklona Bolshogo Kavkaza na nachalo XXI stoletiya (The state of modern glaciation of the northern slope of the Greater Caucasus at the beginning of the XXI century) Ustoychivoye razvitiye gornykh territoriy, 2010, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 69-73.
- Lurye P.M., Panov V.D. Izmeneniye sovremennogo oledeneniya severnogo sklona Bolshogo Kavkaza v XX v. i prognoz ego degradatsii v XXI v. (Changes in the modern glaciation of the northern slope of the Greater Caucasus in the XX century and the forecast of its degradation in the XXI century). Meteorologiya i gidrologiya, 2014, No. 4., pp. 68-76.
- Rets E.P., Durmanov I.N., Kireeva M.B. et al. Past ‘peak water’ in the North Caucasus: deglaciation drives a reduction in glacial runoff impacting summer river runoff and peak discharges. Climatic Change, 2020, Vol. 163, pp. 2135–2151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-020-02931-y.
- Voda Rossii (Water in Russia). Available at: https://water-rf.ru. (20.11.2020).
Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii i ispolzovanii vodnykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2012 godu”. (State report “On the state and diposal of water resources in Russian Federation in 2012”), Moscow: NIA-Priroda, 2013, 370 p.
- Raskin P., Gleick P., Pontius G. and Strzepek K. Water Futures: Assessment of Long-range Pattens and Problems. Stockholm: Stockholm Environmental Institute, 1977, 77 p.
- Rybkina I.D. and Sivokhip Zh.T. Vodnyye resursy rossiysko-kazakhstanskogo transgranichnogo regiona i ikh ispolzovaniye (Water resources of the Russian-Kazakh transboundary region and their use). Yug Rossii: ekologiya. Razvitiye, 2019, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 70-86. DOI: 10.18470/1992-1098-2019-2-70-86.
- Federalnaya sluzhba gosudarstvennoy statistiki (Federal Service of state statistics) Available at: https://rosstat.gov.ru (20.11.2020).