Analysis of regional features of water consumption structure in the North Caucasus. Part 2. Problems of water use optimization

Е.А. Rybak1,2, О.О. Rybak1,2,3

1Branch of Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sochi, Kurortny Av., 99/18

2FRC SSC RAS, RF, Sochi, Yana Fabritsiusa St., 2/28

3Water Problems Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow, Gubkina St., 3

E-mail: elena.rybak@gmail.com, o.o.rybak@gmail.com

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2021-3-68-78

UDC 556.18                                                                    

Abstract:

   The dynamics of water consumption growth in the world as a whole is such that every 8-10 years the world demand for water doubles. During the period when the world population tripled, the use of fresh water increased 17 times. In Russia, fresh water makes up approximately 85–88% of the total water intake (taking into account the withdrawal of unused water) and approximately 3% of the average long-term runoff. In the south of Russia, practically all water resources are involved in national economic activity.

   The agricultural sector plays a significant role in the economy of the South and North Caucasian Federal Districts. Naturally, the growth of production in agriculture is largely depends on its reliable and high-quality water supply. In this regard, the important indicators characterizing the efficiency of water resources disposal are the volume of recycled and consecutive use of water. In general, for the study region, the water turnover coefficient is much lower than the national one. The unabated discharge of polluted waters is of great concern, too. The share of polluted waters discharged into rivers, lakes, etc. is on average 27% in the study region, exceeding the all-Russian indicator by almost two times.

   Specific measures within the framework of revising the structure of water consumption in the study region include:

– reduction of the discharge of untreated water;

– reduction of losses during water transportation;

– increase in the share of recycled water use;

– introduction of advanced irrigation technologies that require less water;

– reducing the load on natural water bodies.

– organization of proper monitoring of the ecological state of water bodies;

– carrying out a complex of scientific research on forecasting water resources in the conditions of climatic changes and linking forecasts with the changing socio-economic and demographic situation.

Keywords: North Caucasus, water resources, water consumption, water disposal, water loss, rational use of water resources.

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