On monitoring the hydrological and hydrochemical regime of the Black Sea waters

A.A. Valle

 Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28

E-mail: ogorodovaa.a@mail.ru

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2021-4-5-13

UDC 551.465 (262.5)

Abstract:

   This article describes the main facts and milestones in the development of methods for monitoring the hydrological and hydrochemical state of the Black Sea waters from the 19th century to the present day. In the 19th century, episodic observations of the state of the Black Sea began due to accompanying ship measurements, as well as those made at sea coastal stations. Regular observations of the hydrological and hydrochemical regime of the Black Sea waters began in the mid-1950s. The largest number of measurements were made from the early 1980s to the end of the 1990s. Since the late 1990s, oceanographic surveys almost stopped. The amount of hydrological and hydrochemical information during that period decreased due to economic difficulties, reaching the level of the 1920s.

   It is shown that the modern understanding of the hydrological and hydrochemical processes of this unique sea basin has resulted from the intensive work of many oceanographers over the past centuries. Special attention is paid to monitoring the oxygen regime of the Black Sea.

   From the middle of the 20th century to the present, regular monitoring of the hydrological and hydrochemical state of the Black Sea has been carried out due to such data collection systems as: research vessels, integrated coastal observations (coastal stations and ship sections, as well as surveys in the coastal zone), stationary platforms, free-drifting buoys. The development of remote monitoring of the hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of the Black Sea using free-drifting buoys provided the creation of a system of monitoring the state of the Black Sea, which is a great achievement of the modern oceanography of the Black Sea.

Keywords: oceanography of the Black Sea, methods of environmental control, oxygen regime.

To quote: Valle, A.A., 2021. ON MONITORING THE HYDROLOGICAL AND HYDROCHEMICAL REGIME OF THE BLACK SEA WATERS. Monitoring systems of environment, (4), pp.5–13. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.33075/2220-5861-2021-4-5-13.

Full text in PDF(RUS)

REFERENCES

  1. Gidrometeorologiya i gidrohimiya morej SSSR.T.4: CHernoe more, Vyp.1. Gidrometeorologicheskie usloviya / pod red. A.I. Simonova, E.N. Al’tmana. S. Pb: Gidrometeoizdat. 1991. 429 p.
  2. Leonov A.K. Regional’naya okeanografiya. CHast’ 1. Beringovo, Ohotskoe, YAponskoe, Kaspijskoe i CHernoe morya. L: Gidrometeoizdat. 1960. 765 p.
  3. Grishin M.G., Sizov A.A. CHernomorskaya glubomernaya ekspediciya (1890–1891 gg.) // Ekologіchna bezpeka priberezhnoї ta shel’fovoї zon ta kompleksne vikoristannya resursіv shel’fu. 2011.Vol. 25. No 2. pp. 444–450.
  4. Andrusov N.I. Nekotorye rezul’taty ekspedicii “CHernomorca”. K voprosu o proiskhozhdenii serovodoroda v vodah CHernogo morya. Izv. Imp. Russk. Geogr. Ob-va. 1892. T.28. Vol. 4. pp. 37–397.
  5. Polonskij A.B., Kotolupova A.A. Dolgoperiodnaya izmenchivost’ rastvorennogo kisloroda i temperatury verhnego sloya vod CHernogo morya // Okeanologiya. 2019. T. 59. No. 1. pp. 22–32.
  6. Filippov D.M. Cirkulyaciya i struktura vod CHernogo morya. M.: Nauka. 1968. 136 p.
  7. Grishin M.G. Issledovaniya fizicheskih svojstv CHernogo morya v 1920-e–1930-e gg.: kratkij obzor // Ekologіchna bezpeka priberezhnoї ta shel’fovoї zon ta kompleksne vikoristannya resursіv shel’fu. 2011. Vol. 25. T. 2. pp. 435–443.
  8. Blatov A.S., Bulgakov N.P. Izmenchivost’ gidrofizicheskih polej CHernogo morya. Gidrometeoizdat. 1984. 240 p.
  9. Eremeev V.N., Konovalov S.K., Romanov A.S. Osobennosti raspredeleniya kisloroda i serovodoroda v vodah CHernogo morya v zimnee-vesennij period. Morskoj gidrofizicheskij zhurnal. 1997. No 4. pp. 32–46.
  10. Konovalov S.K. etall. Lateral injection of oxygen with the Bosporus plume—fingers of oxidizing potential in the Black Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr., 48(6). 2003. pp. 2369–2376.
  11. CHernoe more. Per. s bolg. L.: Gidrometeoizdat. 1983. 240 p.
  12. Bezborodov A.A., Eremeev V.N. CHernoe more. Zona vzaimodejstviya aerobnyh i anaerobnyh vod. Sevastopol’: MGI ANU. 1993. 299 p.
  13. Murray, J.W., Jannash H. W., Honjo S. etal. Unexpected changes in the oxic/anoxic interface in the Black Sea // Nature. 1989. Vol. 338. pp. 411–413.
  14. Lukashev Yu.F., Yakushev E.V. Dissolved oxygen content measurements on the border of the sulfide zone of the Black Sea / PACON-99 Symposium. June 23–25, 1999. The Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow. Abstracts. 167 p.
  15. Stunzhas P.A. O stroenii zony vzaimodejstviya aerobnyh i anaerobnyh CHernogo morya po izmereniyam bezmem-brannym datchikom kisloroda // Okeanologiya. 2000. T. 40. No 4. 539–545 pp.
  16. Novoselov A.A. Voprosy metodiki opredeleniya aerobnoj i anaerobnoj zon v CHernom more // Kompleksnye okeanograficheskie issledovaniya CHernogo morya. Sevastopol’: MGI ANU. 1989. 124–130 pp.
  17. Konovalov S., Tugrul S., Basturk O. Salihoglu I. Spatial isopycnal analysis of the main pycnocline chemistry of the Black Sea: seasonal and interannual variations // Sensitivity to change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Series 2: Environment, 1997. No 27. pp. 197–210.
  18. Körtzinger A.J., Schimanski U.S., Wallace D. The ocean takes a deep breath. Science. 2004. No 306. 1337 p.
  19. Andryushchenko E.G., Galkovskaya L.K., Godin E.A. i dr. Bank okeanografi-cheskih dannyh MGI NAN Ukrainy: informacionnye resursy i dostup k dannym // Sb.nauch.trudov. Sevastopol’: NPC «EKOSI-Gidrofizika». 2010. 59 p.
  20. D’yakov N.N. i dr. Bank okeanograficheskih dannyh Azovskogo i CHernogo morej //Trudy Gosudarstvennogo okeanograficheskogo instituta. 2017. No. 218. 287–297 pp.
  21. Atlas klimaticheskih izmenenij v bol’shih morskih ekosistemah Severnogo polushariya (1878–2013). Region 1. Morya Vostochnoj Arktiki. Region 2. CHyornoe, Azovskoe i Kaspijskoe morya / G.G. Matishov, S.V. Berdnikov, A.P. ZHichkin [i dr.]. Rostov n/D: Izdatel’stvo YUNC RAN. 2014. 256 p.