Features of the structure of marine coastal landscapes

I.V. Agarkova-Lyakh1, A.M. Lyakh2

 1Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28

E-mail: iva_crimea@mail.ru

2A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, RF, Sevastopol, Nakhimov Av., 2

Email: me@antonlyakh.ru

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2022-3-18-26

UDC 911.5+551.435.3                                                                                                             

Abstract:

   The vertical and horizontal structure of the landscapes of the seashores developing in the zones of pseudolitoral (littoral) and supralittoral is considered. The main factors limiting their development and determining the vertical and horizontal structure are wave activity and associated salinization of the adjacent land.

   Their incompleteness is noted in the vertical structure of landscapes: there is almost no soil cover; the presence of vegetation depends on the type of the shore and the intensity of its wave processing. Due to its incompleteness, its landscape structure is considered as simple.

   Wind-wave processes cause such features of coastal landscapes as rhythmicity of conditions and factors of development; high dynamism and spatio-temporal variability of states and boundaries; concentration, transformation and dissipation of energy and matter flows.

   The specificity of living conditions on the shore determines the need for adaptations in organisms living here. The result of the position of the shore at the boundary of the media are barrier effects for living matter.

   In the horizontal structure of coastal landscapes, banding or microzoning is observed, expressed in the placement of coastal sediments, vegetation, and animals.

   With the distance from the cut line in the direction of the land, the species diversity and the projective coverage of phytocenoses increases, the height of the stand and shrubs increases, their shape changes.

   The considered features reveal the uniqueness of coastal landscapes as transitional between terrestrial and aquatic complexes.

Keywords: pseudolitoral, shoreline, microzonality, vertical and horizontal structure of landscapes, coastal vegetation.

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