L.V. Stelmakh1, O.A. Stepanova2
1The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research of RAS, RF, Sevastopol, Nachimov Av., 2; E-mail: email@example.com
2Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
UDC 581.526.325; 578.4 (262.5)
The purpose of this work is to assess the effect of viral infection on the growth and destruction of the Black Sea microalgae Tetraselmis viridis (Chlorophyta) in culture under different light conditions.
In the experiments, the culture of the microalgae T. viridis and the algal virus of microalgae T. viridis (strain TsV-S1) were used.
It was shown that under conditions of continuous artificial illumination, viral infection of cells at the light intensity of 60 μE·m–2·s-1 was noted a day after infection, and at 20 μE·m-2·s-1 after two days. Infected and non-infected cells differed in shape and size. The onset of the death of the infected culture at the light intensity 60 μE·m-2·s-1 was noted at the end of the third day after the number of algae cells reached 3·105 cells·ml-1, whereas at 20 μE·m-2·s-1 – at the beginning of the fifth day with the same number. Complete lysis of algae cells was registered by the end of the sixth day under low light conditions, whereas 3times increase in light intensity resulted in completing this process two days earlier.
Based on the obtained results and data available in literature on the effect of viral infection on certain types of algae in laboratory experiments, it can be assumed that the role of viral infection in the die-off of phytoplankton cells in the sea can increase only during periods of phytoplankton blooms caused by some species of algae. During such periods the number of their cells increases by several orders of magnitude. This causes seasonal peaks in the number of algoviruses that can infect the algae species. In this situation, the degradation of phytoplankton bloom can probably occur within a few days.
Key words: marine microalgae, algal virus, phytoplankton, Black Sea.
LIST OF REFERENCES:
- Schmoker С., Hernandes-Leon S., Calbet A. Microzooplankton grazing in the oceans: impacts, data variability, knowledge gaps and future directions // Journal of Plankton Research. 2013. Vol. 35. P. 691–706.
- Wommack K.E., Colwell R.R. Virioplankton: Viruses in aquatic ecosystems//Microbiol. and Molec. Biol. Reviews. 2000. Vol. 64, N 1. P. 69–114.
- Bratbak G.,Wilson, Heldal M. Viral control of Emiliania huxleyi blooms? // Journal of Marine Systems. 1996. 9. 1–2. P. 75–81.
- Viral glycosphingolipids induce lytic infection and cell death in marine phytoplankton / Vardi A., VanMooy, B.A.S., Fredricks H.F. [et al] // 2009. 326. P. 861–865.DOI: 10.1126/science.1177322.
- Decoupling physical from biological processes to assess the impact of viruses on a mesoscale algal bloom / Y. Lehahn, I. Koren, D. Schatz [et al.] // Biol. 2014. 24. P. 2041–2046. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.07.046.
- Beckett S.J., Weitz J.S. The Effect of Strain Level Diversity on Robust Inference of Virus-Induced Mortality of Phytoplankton // Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018. 9. Article 1850. DOI: 10.3389.
- Diversity of viruses infecting the green microalga Ostreococcus lucimarinus/ Derelle, A. Monier, R. Cooke [et al.] // J. Virol. March, 2015. DOI:10.1128.
- Slagter H.A, Gerringa L.J.A., Brussaard C.P.D. Phytoplankton Virus Production Negatively Affected by Iron Limitation // Front. Mar. Sci. 2016.3:156. DOI: 10.3389.
- Takano Y., Tomaru Y., Nagasaki K. Visualization of a Dinoflagellate-Infecting Virus HcDNAV and Its Infection Process // 2018. 10. 554. DOI:10.3390.
- Characteristics of the virus Tetraselmis viridis Norris (Chlorophyta, Prasinophycea) / O. A. Stepanova, A. L. Boyko, A. I. Gordienko [and others] / / Add. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2005. № P. 158–162.
- Declarative patent for an invention 65864A UA, MKU 7 C12 N 1/12. Method of isolation of Alguliyev odnokolernyh algae, for example Platymonas viridis Rouch (Chlorophita) / O. A. Stepanova (UA); applicant A. A. Kovalevsky Institute of biology of the South seas of the national Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (UA). № 2003065499; dec. 06.2003; pub. 15.04.2004, bul. № 4 // Industrial property. 2004. № 4.
- Stepanova O. A. the black sea alovirus // sea Biology 2016. 42. № 2. P. 99–103.
- Stepanova O. A., Boyko A. L., Serbinenko I. S. Computer analysis of three genomes of marine Alguliyev // Microbiological journal. 2013. V. 75. № 5. P. 76–81.
- Parsons T. R., Takahashi M., Hargrave B., Biological Oceanography. Moscow: Leg. and pishch. industry,1982. 431 p.
- Stepanova O. A., Gaisky P. V., Sholar S. A. Influence of viral lysis on some physical parameters of sea water under experimental conditions // Monitoring systems of environment. Sevastopol: INTS. 2018. Rel. 13 (33). P. 19–28.
- TsV-N1: A Novel DNA Algal Virus that Infects Tetraselmis striata / A.Pagarete, T. Grébert, O. Stepanova [et al.] // Viruses. 2015. 7. 3937–3953. DOI: 10.3390.