Behavioral responses of freshwater bivalve mussel Unio pictorum to a number of common abiotic chemical contaminants

P.V. Gaisky, O.A. Stepanova

Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28

Email: gaysky@inbox.ru

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2020-2-87-96

UDC 628.19; 573.7; 681.2                                              

Abstract:

   Bioelectronic automated systems for autonomous and telemetric control of toxic pollutants in the water environment are based on registration of behavioral characteristics of biological organisms used as biosensors, for which we mainly use bivalves – river bivalve mussel Unio pictorum. Many years experience in the development and maintenance of meters with mussel participation in field and laboratory conditions has shown the possibility and effectiveness of algorithmic and software analyses of their activity aimed at detecting a number of toxicants and carrying out a generalized environmental control, including both sudden and chronic pollution.

   By using the laboratory biomonitoring complex “Biomonitor-L” and the laboratory unit “Environment”, generalized ideas about the impact of a number of common household chemicals (formalin, ammonia, acetic acid, acetone, and detergents) on the operative activity of freshwater mussels were obtained. Statistical models of the group reaction were obtained, which can be used for algorithmically-programmed analysis and automatic detection of toxic pollutants used in experiments in the range of a given concentration using the proposed biomonitoring system. A preliminary assessment of the possibility of such detection is presented in the Table. For larger concentrations of these substances, these probabilities will obviously increase, but the primary condition of the experiments was the use of a certain volume ratio (from 0.03 to 0.1%) of the initial widely used household chemicals and natural river water. Long-term exposure to these substances (more than a day) affects the condition of mussels and can be classified as chronic pollution requiring further research.

Keywords: bioelectronic meter, bivalve mussel, biosensor, laboratory stand, bioindicator, toxicants, water environment, ecology, toxic pollution.

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