A.E. Shchodro1, S.A. Sholar1,2
1Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28
2Sevastopol State University, RF, Sevastopol, Universitetskaya St., 33
The article presents schemes of some environmental structure types that control the features of water flow, contribute to its saturation with oxygen, increase the rate of transverse water mass transfer and activate mass transfer in general. These facilities contribute to the washing of stagnant zones in rivers, sea bays and reservoirs, reduce the initial concentrations of harmful substances released into natural water reservoirs. Consideration is also given on the possibility of changing the parameters of these structures to increase their efficiency. As such, semi-dams (bunas) are considered, in particular. These structures are located to direct the movement of sediments and for their accumulation near the beach, as well as for their accumulation in intersemi-dammed spaces, securing coastal rivers and seas from erosion, and other tasks. At the same time, environmental aspects are also observed, since any structures of this type saturate the flow of oxygen, disturbing it, slowing down the speed of the transit flow, create spawning grounds, and conditions for recreation of hydrobionts, as well as other favorable effects. Moreover, obliquely located relative to the directed flow, low solid or through semi-dams are active, resulting in a number of useful hydraulic effects – the exclusion of circulation in the stream and a sharp helical flow. The bottom rapids-swirlers, which disperse the incoming masses of water over a significant volume of water areas, are also considered. The original design and scheme of operation of water outlet structures in wide water areas and channels are described. based on the formation of helical currents with vertical axes, which form flows with separation and mass transfer rights and allow completely eliminating erosion at the base.
Keywords: environmental structures, sedimentation, siltation, river mouths, hydraulic engineering, design, sediment transport.
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