Modern hydroecological facilities for activation of mass transfer in aquatic environment

A.E. Shchodro1, S.A. Sholar1,2

 1Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RF, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28


2Sevastopol State University, RF, Sevastopol, Universitetskaya St., 33


DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2022-2-51-60

UDC 532.5:504.06


   The article presents schemes of some environmental structure types that control the features of water flow, contribute to its saturation with oxygen, increase the rate of transverse water mass transfer and activate mass transfer in general. These facilities contribute to the washing of stagnant zones in rivers, sea bays and reservoirs, reduce the initial concentrations of harmful substances released into natural water reservoirs. Consideration is also given on the possibility of changing the parameters of these structures to increase their efficiency. As such, semi-dams (bunas) are considered, in particular. These structures are located to direct the movement of sediments and for their accumulation near the beach, as well as for their accumulation in intersemi-dammed spaces, securing coastal rivers and seas from erosion, and other tasks. At the same time, environmental aspects are also observed, since any structures of this type saturate the flow of oxygen, disturbing it, slowing down the speed of the transit flow, create spawning grounds, and conditions for recreation of hydrobionts, as well as other favorable effects. Moreover, obliquely located relative to the directed flow, low solid or through semi-dams are active, resulting in a number of useful hydraulic effects – the exclusion of circulation in the stream and a sharp helical flow. The bottom rapids-swirlers, which disperse the incoming masses of water over a significant volume of water areas, are also considered. The original design and scheme of operation of water outlet structures in wide water areas and channels are described. based on the formation of helical currents with vertical axes, which form flows with separation and mass transfer rights and allow completely eliminating erosion at the base.

Keywords: environmental structures, sedimentation, siltation, river mouths, hydraulic engineering, design, sediment transport.

To quote: 

Full text in PDF(RUS)


  1. Shchodro A.E. and Moklyak N.N. Sposob intensifikacii vodoobmena v akvatorii i upravleniya dvizheniem nanosov i ustrojstvo dlya ego osushchestvleniya: pat. 2711810, Ros. Federaciya. Zayavl. 01.10.2018; opubl. 22.01.2020. Byul. No. 3, 17 p.
  2. Kirienko I.I., Shchodro A.E., and Sрuminskij V.D. Beregozashchitnoe sooruzhenie: a.s. 971986, USSR. Zayavl. 10.07.1981; opubl. 11.07.1982. Byul. No. 41, 3 p.
  3. Kirienko I.I., Shchodro A.E., Shuminskij V.D., and Shinnaruk L.A. Proektirovanie nizkih zataplivaemyh poluzaprud (Design of low flooded semi-dams). Gidromelioraciya i gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo, 1981, No. 1, pp. 133–142.
  4. Shchodro A.E., Moklyak N.N., and Hodnevich Ya.V. Pokrashchennya ekologіchnogo stanu malih rіchok za dopomogoyu zatoplyuvanih napіvzagat (Improving the ecological state of small rivers with the help of flooded semi-dams). Vіsnik Nacіonal’nogo unіversitetu vodnogo gospodarstva ta prirodokoristuvannya, 2007, No. 1 (37), pp. 133–142.
  5. Moklyak N.N. Zastosuvannya zatoplyuvanih vodozmіshuval’nih napіvzagat dlya іntensifіkacії masoobmіnu v potocі z metoyu pokrashchennya ekologіchnogo stanu malih rіchok (The use of flooded water-mixing semi-dams for the intensification of mass transfer in the stream in order to improve the ecological state of small rivers). Vіsnik Nacіonal’nogo unіversitetu vodnogo gospodarstva ta prirodokoristuvannya, 2006, No. 4 (36), pp. 143–148.
  6. Edel’shtejn K.K. and Saharova M.I. Vosstanovlenie i ohrana malyh rek: Teoriya i praktika (Restoration and protection of small rivers: Theory and practice), Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1989, 314 p.
  7. Rossinskij K.I. and Kuz’min I.A. Reshenie uravnenij diffuzii primenitel’no k zadacham dvizheniya vzveshennyh nanosov (Solution of diffusion equations in relation to the problems of movement of suspended sediments). Ruslovye processy, 1958, No. 1, pp. 100–123.
  8. Zhuravlev M.M. Mestnyj razmyv u opor mostov (Local erosion at bridge piers), Moscow: Transport, 1984, 243 p.
  9. Shchodro A.E. River bed deformations near banks and hydraulic structures due to river flow River Basin Management. 4th International Conference on River Basin Management Including all Aspects of Hydrology, Ecology, Environmental Management, Flood Plains and Wetlands.- Boston: WIT-Press, Southampton, 2007, pp. 381–387.
  10. Shchodro A.E. and Moklyak N.N. Low flooded (submerged) groins as constructions activating mass transfer in rever flows. Scientific Bulletins «Civil Engineering Impact upon the Environment», 2014, No. 11, pp. 18–29.
  11. Gur’ev A.P., ShchodroE., Chumicheva M.M., and Shlikhta V.M. Kinematic characteristics of the flow of an intake structure with a curvilinear threshold. Hydrotechnical Construction, 1991, № 22 (11), pp. 652–655.
  12. Shchodro A.E. and Shlikhta V.M. Eksperimental’noe i chislennoe issledovanie struktury i razmyvayushchej sposobnosti potoka u vodovypuskov v kanaly (Experimental and numerical study of the structure and erosion capacity of the flow at water outlets into canals). Bulletin of NTUU «KPI», 1999, Vol. 2, No. 36, pp. 404–410.
  13. Shchodro A.E. and Moklyak N.N. Nizkie zatoplennye poluzaprudy kak sooruzheniya dlya zashchity beregov ot razmyva i uluchsheniya ekologicheskogo sostoyaniya vodotoka (Low flooded semi-dams as structures to protect the banks from erosion and improve the ecological state of the watercourse). Gidroinzheneriya, 2013, No. 1 (15), pp. 20–35.
  14. Gur’ev A.P., Shchodro A.E., Chumicheva M.M., and Shlikhta V.M. Kinematicheskie harakteristiki potoka vpusknogo sooruzheniya s krivolinejnym porogom (Kinematic characteristics of the flow of an intake structure with a curvilinear threshold). Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo, 1991, № 4, pp. 17–19.