La Nina 2016 within the spatial events classification

O.V. Marchukova, V.N. Maslova, E.N. Voskresenskaya, A.S. Lubkov

Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, Russian Federation, Sevastopol, Leninа St., 28


UDC 551.465.635, 551.555.1


   The features of La Nina 2016 were studied taking into account the spatial classification of the cold episodes of El Nino – Southern Oscillation. Using sea surface temperature (SST) data sets of COBE SST in 1900 –2014 two La Nina types were separated. They differ one from another by the character of cold SST anomalies propagation in the equatorial Pacific. The pattern of development and intensity of La Nina 2016 was analyzed and defined on the basis of SST anomalies in Nino3.4 and Nino1+2 regions, surface currents and Southern Oscillation index.

Keywords: La Nina, sea surface temperature, the Pacific Ocean, surface currents, Southern Oscillation, El Nino.

Full text in PDF (RUS)


  1. Philander S.G. El Nino, La Nina and the Southern Oscillation. San Diego: Academic Press. 1990. 289 p.
  2. McPhaden M.J., Zebiak S.E. Glantz M.H. ENSO as an integrating concept in Earth science // Science. 2006. Vol. 314. № 5806. P. 1740–1745.
  3. Glantz M.H. A La Nina Summit: A Review of the Causes and Consequences of Cold Events. Boulder: Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, NCAR. 1998. 43 p.
  4. Glantz M.H. La Nina and its impacts: facts and speculations. New York: The United Nations University. 2002. 313 p.
  5. Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact / W. Cai, P.V. Rensch,  92 T. Cowan [et al.] // J. Clim. 2010. Vol. 23. P. 4944–4955.
  6. Shinoda T., Hurlburt H.E., Metzger E.J. Anomalous tropical ocean circulation associated with La Nina Modoki // J. Geophys. Res. 2011. Vol. 116. C12001.
  7. Larkin N.K., Harrison D.E. Tropical Pacific ENSO cold events, 1946–1995: SST, SLP, and surface wind composite anomalies // J. Clim. 2001. Vol. 14. P. 3904–3931.
  8. Li Y., Lau N.C. Impact of ENSO in the atmospheric variability over the North Atlantic in late winter–role of transient eddies // J. Clim. 2012. Vol. 25. P. 320–342.
  9. Impact of the 2010-2011 La Nina phenomenon in Colombia, South America: the human toll of an extreme weather event / N. Hoyos, J. Escobar, J.C. Restrepo, [et al.] // Appl. Geogr. 2013. Vol. 39. P. 16–25.
  10. Impacts of two types of La Nina on the NAO during boreal winter / W. Zhang,L. Wang, B. Xiang, [et. al.] // Climate Dynamics. 2014. Vol. 44. P. 1351–1366.
  11. Yuan Y., Yan H.M. Different types of La Nina events and different responsesof the tropical atmosphere // Chin. Sci. Bull. 2013. Vol. 58. № 3. P. 406–415.
  12. Singh, A., Delcroix T., Cravatte S. Contrasting the flavors of El-Nino-Southern Oscillation using sea surface salinity observations // J. Geophys. Res. 2011. Vol. 116. C06016.
  13. El Nino Modoki and its possible teleconnection / K. Ashok, S.K. Behera, S.A. Rao [et al.] // J. Geophys. Res. 2007, Vol.112. C11007.
  14. Kao H.Y., Yu J.Y. Contrasting eastern-Pacific and central-Pacific types ofENSO // J. Clim. 2009. Vol. 22. P. 615–632.
  15. Kug J.S., Jin F.F., An S.I. Two types of El Nino events: Cold tongue El Nino and warm pool El Nino // J. Clim. 2009. Vol. 22. P. 1499–1515.
  16. Hirahara S., Ishii M. Fukuda Y. Centennial-scale sea surface temperature analysis and its uncertainty // J. of Climate.2014. Vol. 27. P 57–75.
  17. An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate / R.W. Reynolds, N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith [et al.] // J. Climate. 2002. Vol. 15. P. 1609–1625.
  18. Ropelewski C.F., Jones P.D. An extension of the Tahiti-Darwin Southern Oscillation Index // Monthly Weather Review. 1987. Vol. 115. № 9. P. 2161–2165.
  19. Derber J.C., Rosati A. A global oceanic data assimilation system // J. Phys.Oceanogr. 1989. Vol. 19. P. 1333–1347.
  20. Орлов А. И. Нечисловая статистика. М.: М3-Пресс, 2004. 513 с.
  21. Орлов А.И. Математические методы теории классификации // Научный журнал КубГАУ. 2014. Т. 7. № 91. С. 1–28.
  22. Laken B., Calogovic J. Composite analysis with Monte Carlo methods: an example with cosmic rays and clouds // J.Space Weather Space Clim. 2013. Vol. 3.A29.
  23. Trenberth K.E. The definition of El Nino // Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 1997. Vol. 78. № 12. P. 2771–2777.
  24. Воскресенская Е.Н., Марчукова О.В. Качественная классификация событий Ла-Нинья // Мор. гидрофиз. журн. 2015. № 3. С. 15–26.