Testing of shipbuilding materials at various depths of the Black Sea: technical equipment, control of the deep water environment parameters, prospects for development (review)

L.L. Smyrnova

Institute of Natural and Technical Systems,  Sevastopol,  Lenin St., 28

E-mail: inik48@inbox.ru

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2020-2-54-61

UDC 620.199.27:629.12(262.5)

Abstract:

   Based on the analysis of literature and own data, the author summarizes the experience of using deep-sea equipment – anchor buoy stations and deep-sea stands for testing shipbuilding materials in the Black Sea pelagic zone in 1971-1985. The main structural elements of the deep-sea test system included a container with samples (stand), rigging, a low-frequency (up to 5 kHz) automatic opening device and a carrier buoy. The results of calculating the reliability of deep-sea systems taking into account corrosion resistance and carrying capacity of the carrier buoy, the relative capacity of the stand and the reliability of rigging are presented. The technique used for setting a deep-sea stand provided a high probability of its rise and necessary contact of experimental samples with a hydrogen sulfide medium.

   The main chemical, physical and microbiological factors of the hydrogen sulfide environment resulting in the destruction of shipbuilding materials at depths from 150 to 1000 m are discussed in the review. The results obtained showed a decrease in the rate of general corrosion of steel samples and an increase in cathodic processes with hydrogen depolarization, embrittlement, cracking, and the appearance of caverns and pits on their surface. Studies of biofilms of microfouling on various metals and alloys revealed the activity of both sulfate-reducing bacteria and heterotrophic microflora. The largest percentage of specific microflora, mainly acid-forming, was observed on the surfaces of various hull steels.

   It is noted that it is necessary to study resistance of materials not only in the oxygen and hydrogen sulfide zones, but also in the complex redox zone of the Black Sea using modern deep-sea equipment and methods for monitoring the surrounding hydrogen sulfide environment.

Keywords: Black Sea, buoy stations, deep water stands, reliability, hydrogen sulfide, bacterial fouling.

Full text in PDF(RUS)

 LIST OF REFERENCES

  1. Overview of the program of an oceanographic research by means of buoy systems // Express information. Ser. Underwater-technical, diving and ship lifting works. 1974. No. 47.
  2. Hristov R.V., Stepanov S.N., Petrov V.G. The use of deep-sea testing equipment and its development prospects // Shipbuild. technol. 1981. No. 5. P. 36–38.
  3. Hristov R.V., Lyakh E.P. Automatisation of the process of lifting deep-sea test stends // Shipbuild. Technol. 1983, No. 4. P. 86–88.
  4. Ilyin I.N. Ecology of the pelagic oceanic fouling. M.: Company of Scientific Publications, КMК. 2008. P. 42–90.
  5. Hristov R.V., Lyakh E.P. Evaluation criteria for the quality of a deep-sea test stend // Shipbuild. Technol. 1982. No. 1. P. 86–88.
  6. Shtevneva A.I., Lebedeva M.N., Melnichuk E.P., Panina O.A. The role of bacterial fouling in the destruction of metals in seawater // Hydrobiol. J. 1973. Vol. 9, No. 3. P. 12−19.
  7. Lebedeva M.N., Shtevneva A.I. Heterotrophic microflora fouling and its effect on metal corrosion in the hydrogen sulfide and oxygen zones of the Black Sea // Oceanology. 1975. Vol. 15, No. 4. P. 649−653.
  8. Lebedeva M.N., Shtevneva A.I., Markianovich E.M. The species composition of periphyton bacteria and their biochemical properties on the surface of various metals that are exhibited in the oxygen and hydrogen sulfide zones of the Black Sea // Mater. of the All-Union Symp. on the study of the Black and Mediterranean Seas and the use and protection of their resources (Sevastopol, October 1973). Part IV. Sanitary and technical hydrobiology. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 1973. P. 70−74.
  9. Vykhristyuk P.N., Melnichuk E.P., Khlystov A.Z. Corrosion resistance and protective ability of some materials in the hydrogen sulfide zone of the Black Sea // Abstracts. 4th Iinterdisciplinary Scientific Technical Conf. “The ship protection against corrosion and fouling.” Leningrad: Sudostroyeniye. 1989. P. 49–50.
  10. Lukasheva T.A., Ledenev A.B., Korovin Yu.M. Complex research of metal fouling and corrosion in the Black Sea // Fouling and biodegradation: environmental problems. M.: Nauka. 1992. P. 161−170.
  11. Smirnova L.L., Melnichuk E.P. Means of corrosion protection of metallic materials in a hydrogen sulfide marine environment under high hydrostatic pressure // Progressive methods and means of protecting metals and shipbuilding structures from corrosion: Abstracts. All-Union Scientific and Technical Conf. / All-Union Interdisciplinary Scientific-Technical Institute for the Protection of Metals from Corrosion. M.1988. Part 3. P. 207–208.
  12. Merten K.N. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length / K.N. Merten, L.R. Bradley, Y. Takano [et al.] // Quaternary Science Reviews. 16 April. 2012. V. 39. P. 45–59.
  13. Mitropolsky A.Yu., Bezborodov A.A., Ovsyany E.I. Geochemistry of the Black Sea. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 1982. 144 p.
  14. Bezborodov A.A., Eremeev V.N. The Black Sea. Interaction zone of aerobic and anaerobic waters. Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. MGI. Sevastopol, 1992. 132 p.
  15. Sorokin Y.I. The Black Sea: Nature, resources. M.: Nauka .1982. 216 p.
  16. Vodyanitsky V.A. The Black Sea in the light of the latest research. Sevastopol: Krimizdat. 1951. 28 p.
  17. Kriss A.E. Marine hydrobiology (deep sea). M.: Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 1959. 455 p.
  18. Kriss A.E., Lebedeva M.N. The vertical distribution of the number and biomass of microorganisms in the deep sea areas of the Black Sea // Reports of USSR Academy of Sciences. 1952. Vol. 93, No. 6. P. 949−952.
  19. Lebedeva M.N. Bacterial filaments that are carried out from the hydrogen sulfide zone of the Black Sea as a possible object of nutrition for zooplankton-filtering by the example of Calanus // Tr. Sevastopol Biol. Station of USSR Academy of Sciences. 1959. Vol. XI. P. 29−42.
  20. Sorokin Y.I. Experimental data about the rate of oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea // Oceanology. 1971. Vol. XI, Issue 3. P. 425–431.
  21. Gulin M.B., Lazorenko G.E. The effect of redox environmental conditions on the formation of a suspended form of manganese in the Black Sea water // Reports of USSR Academy of Sciences. 1990. No. 3. P. 57−60.
  22. Debolskaya E.I., Yakushev E.V. About the role of suspended manganese in the oxidation of sulfide hydrogen in the redox zone of the Black Sea // Water Resources. 2002. Vol. 29, No. 1. P. 79−84.
  23. Sorokin D.Yu., Lysenko A.M. Characteristic of heterotrophic bacteria from the Black Sea, that capable for oxidizing of reduced sulfur compounds to sulfates // Microbiol. 2003. Vol. 62, No. 6. P. 1018–1030.
  24. Konovalov S.K. Suboxide zone of the Black Sea: genesis and role in the formation of spatio-temporal variability of the water biogeochemical structure of the main pycnocline /Abstr. diss. … d.g.s. Sevastopol: Research Center “ECOSI-Hydrophysics”. 2011. 36 p.
  25. Zhorov V.A., Sovga E.E., Kalashnikova Y.S., Kirchanova A.I. Assessment of hydrogen sulfide chemical forms in various zones of the Black Sea // Geochemistry. 1978. No. 11. P. 1703−1709.
  26. Vasiliev A.S., Nazarov V.S. Equipment for the detection of anchor hydrological buoys // Methods and devices for the study of physical processes in the ocean. Sevastopol: MGI. USSR Academy of Sciences. 1966. Vol. 36. P. 163–167.
  27. Kamman K. Work with ion-selective electrodes M.:Mir. 1980.180 p.
  28. Migli D., Torreno K. Potentiometric analysis of water. M.: Mir. 1980. P. 454–465.
  29. Unified methods of water analysis. M.: Chimiya. 1977. 217 p.
  30. Wulfson V.I. Physico-chemical characteristics of sea water as a corrosive environment // Shipbuild.Technol. 1965. No. 7. P. 34−39.
  31. Dubinin A.V. Determination of sulfur reduced in the anaerobic water area) / A.V. Dubinin, T.P. Demidova and M.N. Rimskaya-Korsakova [et al.] // Marine Hydrophys. J. 2019. Vol. 35. No. 1. P. 37

 

If you have found a spelling error, please, notify us by selecting that text and pressing Ctrl+Enter.

Translate »

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: