Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, Sevastopol, Lenin St., 28
Based on the analysis of literature and own data, the author summarizes the experience of using deep-sea equipment – anchor buoy stations and deep-sea stands for testing shipbuilding materials in the Black Sea pelagic zone in 1971-1985. The main structural elements of the deep-sea test system included a container with samples (stand), rigging, a low-frequency (up to 5 kHz) automatic opening device and a carrier buoy. The results of calculating the reliability of deep-sea systems taking into account corrosion resistance and carrying capacity of the carrier buoy, the relative capacity of the stand and the reliability of rigging are presented. The technique used for setting a deep-sea stand provided a high probability of its rise and necessary contact of experimental samples with a hydrogen sulfide medium.
The main chemical, physical and microbiological factors of the hydrogen sulfide environment resulting in the destruction of shipbuilding materials at depths from 150 to 1000 m are discussed in the review. The results obtained showed a decrease in the rate of general corrosion of steel samples and an increase in cathodic processes with hydrogen depolarization, embrittlement, cracking, and the appearance of caverns and pits on their surface. Studies of biofilms of microfouling on various metals and alloys revealed the activity of both sulfate-reducing bacteria and heterotrophic microflora. The largest percentage of specific microflora, mainly acid-forming, was observed on the surfaces of various hull steels.
It is noted that it is necessary to study resistance of materials not only in the oxygen and hydrogen sulfide zones, but also in the complex redox zone of the Black Sea using modern deep-sea equipment and methods for monitoring the surrounding hydrogen sulfide environment.
Keywords: Black Sea, buoy stations, deep water stands, reliability, hydrogen sulfide, bacterial fouling.
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