The impact of  polychlorinated  biphenyls on the bioluminescence rates of the Black Sea ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz (Ctenophora: Lobata)

O.V. Mashukova, M.I. Silakov, L.V. Malahova, A.V. Melnik

 The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of Southern Seas of RAS, RF, Sevastopol, Nachimov Av., 2

E-mail: olgamashukova@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.33075/2220-5861-2021-3-39-49

UDC 593.8-114.8(262.5):661.723                                  

Abstract:

   In order to study the toxic impact of polychlorinated biphenyls Aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the luminescence characteristics of the Black Sea ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865, individuals with the oral-aboral length of 35-40 mm were caught in the waters of the Sevastopol Bay in the period from the August to October 2019.

   The ctenophores kept in an aquarium with seawater without a toxicant were used as a control group; the individuals placed in three aquariums with water with PCB concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 µg -1 were studied as experimental groups. The exposure time in the control and experimental groups was 15, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. The bioluminescence parameters of M. leidyi were analyzed using “Svet instrument-laboratory complex by mechanical and chemical agitation method.

   The study showed that the toxic impact of PCBs, in comparison with the control group, was seen in a decreased amplitude and duration of luminescence at all given concentrations. Meanwhile, one-hour exposure to mechanical agitation resulted in a maximum reliable decrease in the glow duration by 35%.

   At a PCB concentration of 1 μg ∙ L -1, a maximum decrease in the luminescence intensity by a factor of 20 was observed compared with the control group. High PCB values ​​were found to cause a disturbance in the functional development of the ctenophores.

   Thus, such a high sensitivity of Mnemiopsis leidyi luminescence to the impact of polychlorinated biphenyls makes it possible to use them as bioindicators for this type of toxicants.

Keywords: Light emission parameters, polychlorinated biphenyls, bioindication, ctenophores, coastal zone, the Black Sea.

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