Research Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use
of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Kazan, RF, Daurskaya St., 28
The article focuses on the dynamics of the levels of atmospheric air pollution in Kazan with the major gaseous impurities over a five-year period (2016-2020) along with some meteorological factors that determine the conditions for dispersion or accumulation of impurities. Kazan is a large industrial city with a population of more than 1 million people, high traffic loads and large-scale chemical and engineering industries.
The monitoring data of automatic air pollution control stations are used for the calculation. The calculation of background meteorological indicators is made using measurement data from the Kazan-Opornaya weather station. To study the wind regime of the territory, which determines the distribution of impurities in the atmosphere, scatter ellipses of the wind vector are calculated. The impact of some meteorological factors (precipitation, stagnant phenomena, fogs, strong winds, thermal conditions) on the scattering power of the atmosphere is characterized by the meteorological potential of atmospheric pollution and the improved meteorological potential of the atmosphere. The influence of local conditions of dispersion of impurities is shown. Dynamics of the maximum one-time and average annual concentrations of the major gaseous impurities (nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide) is determined, and atmospheric pollution indices are calculated. Violation of the maximum permissible concentrations is recorded for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide while it is not recorded for sulfur dioxide. Exceeding the average annual maximum permissible concentrations of nitrogen dioxide is established. A general trend towards a decrease in average levels of atmospheric air pollution is identified. The change in the complex index, characterizing the average annual levels of pollution is shown to occur under the influence of changes in the scattering power of the atmosphere. The values of the complex index are strongly dependent on the average annual meteorological conditions.
Keywords: atmospheric pollution, dispersion, meteorological potential, atmospheric pollution index.
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